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Content:
  • Earth pirapat sister
  • Neanderthals may have cleared a European forest with fire or tools
  • Ruins and Rebirth
  • Nature school near me
  • Sauropod dinosaurs were restricted to warmer regions of Earth
  • Protecting Half the Planet and Transforming Human Systems Are Complementary Goals
  • Google earth pro resolution
  • Gravel suppliers near me
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Earth pirapat sister

The unfolding crises of mass extinction and climate change call for urgent action in response. To limit biodiversity losses and avert the worst effects of climate disruption, we must greatly expand nature protection while simultaneously downsizing and transforming human systems. The conservation initiative Nature Needs Half or Half Earth , calling for the conservation of half the Earth's land and seas, is commensurate with the enormous challenges we face.

Critics have objected to this initiative as harboring hardship for people near protected areas and for failing to confront the growth economy as the main engine of global ecological destruction.In response to the first criticism, we affirm that conservation policies must be designed and implemented in collaboration with Indigenous and local communities. In response to the second criticism, we argue that protecting half the Earth needs to be complemented by downscaling and reforming economic life, humanely and gradually reducing the global population, and changing food production and consumption.

By protecting nature generously, and simultaneously contracting and transforming the human enterprise, we can create the conditions for achieving justice and well-being for both people and other species. If we fail to do so, we instead accept a chaotic and impoverished world that will be dangerous for us all. Earth's rapidly mounting crises of mass extinction and climate breakdown are merging into a single calamity imperiling all complex life McNeill and Engelke, ; Ceballos et al.

Anthropogenic extinction levels are an estimated 1, times higher than the background rate and predicted to continue climbing Pimm et al. The speed with which average surface temperature is rising is heading the planet toward hothouse conditions Steffen et al. The diversity and dynamism of genetic lineages, populations, species, subspecies, ecosystems, and biomes are collapsing Barnosky et al.

Studies forecast the dislocation of tens of millions of people from land degradation, environmental conflicts, and climate-change induced droughts and floods, sea-level rise, and mega wildfires; globally, an estimated million people will be displaced by climate change alone by Wennersten and Robbins, ; Merone and Tait,Earth's deteriorating predicament calls for bold action.

We propose international action that combines efforts on two fronts: large-scale nature conservation and downscaling human economic, demographic, and food production systems.We argue that this combined approach can halt the mass extinction underway, avert the worst effects of climate change, and prevent much human and non-human death, conflict, and dislocation.

The two-pronged approach we advocate also charts a course toward redefining humanity's relationship with Earth in a way that supports justice for both human and non-human beings. Over the past decades scientific studies have been converging on the assessment that only generous protection of the natural world can stem the collapse of biodiversity Ehrlich and Pringle, ; Wilson, ; Dinerstein et al. Studies are also demonstrating that policy focus on nature protection and restoration, coupled with promoting regenerative agriculture, is key for buffering climatic upheaval and averting worst-case scenarios Griscom et al.

It has thus become evident that along with an energy transition, large- or continental-scale conservation is essential for preventing and mitigating imminent disasters. Alongside expanding protected areas, therefore, transitioning out of the Great Acceleration phase by downsizing the human enterprise will be necessary.

Enlarging the scale of conservation and reducing the scale of human systems are complementary goals. Nature Needs Half calls for the conservation of half the planet's terrestrial, freshwater, and marine areas, with inclusive representation of all ecosystems.

Current protection levels, or moderate upward adjustments, are inadequate for sustaining a biologically rich planet or preempting anticipated disasters Noss et al. Indeed, despite expansion of protected areas in recent decades, high extinction rates persist IPBES,Yet the ongoing erosion of Earth's biodiversity does not demonstrate that conservation measures are ineffective, since without current levels of protection ecological losses would have been far worse Pimm et al.

We can draw two conclusions from the ongoing decline of biodiversity: 1 the Nature Needs Half platform is steering us toward the scale of protection required; and 2 human systems must be downscaled and transformed to reverse mounting pressures of human demands and waste output and to facilitate biodiversity conservation.

The initiative to protect half the planet's ocean and land may seem overambitious or idealistic O'Leary et al. Yet it constitutes a response on a par with today's unprecedented emergencies. Nature Needs Half offers a pragmatic framework that can save Earth's remaining biodiversity and help sustain a livable climate, by protecting sufficient land and marine ecosystems for wild populations and for carbon sequestration.

Nature Needs Half also offers an ethical framework that institutes justice toward the non-human world, by providing enough space for that world to recover and even thrive Wienhues,These positive qualities are generating mainstream attention and support.

Although the Nature Needs Half vision is bold it is not far-fetched. All continents have extensive areas still remote from civilization and largely under natural land cover Davis, ; Maron et al.

Most taiga and tundra habitats of North America and Eurasia are still relatively free of roads, as are many South American, Central African, and Southeast Asian rainforest habitats Ibisch et al. Many of these areas are under assault from extractive industries, but it is not too late to save much of each Beyer et al. Some countries, like Canada and the United States, have hundreds of millions of hectares of government- and tribal-owned lands that can be protected.

Equally important if we are to stem the extinction crisis is protecting and connecting smaller habitat patches embedded in human-dominated landscapes Ellis and Mehrabi,It is in such areas that the bulk of biodiversity is often concentrated and where extinctions loom Pimm et al.These smaller sites retain varying degrees of wildness, provide refuges for threatened life, and help nurture human well-being Louv, ; Noss,Can protecting half the planet be realized?

First, they argue that large-scale protection will cause hardship for poor people living near natural areas restricted from human use. Second, they maintain that Nature Needs Half does not confront the economic system of profit-driven growth underlying resource extraction and human inequality.

Uniting these criticisms is a concern for social justice and fears that such large-scale conservation could exacerbate inequality and food insecurity by placing natural areas off limits to human access Ellis and Mehrabi,We respond to these criticisms by proposing complementary human-system goals that have yet to be elaborated in much of the Nature Needs Half literature.

We argue that alongside expanding nature protection we also need to downsize and retool economic life, humanely and gradually reduce the global population, and transform food systems. Downscaling the human enterprise will facilitate large-scale conservation by lessening human demands on nature and reducing waste output. The combined effort to protect nature and downsize humanity's activities and numbers will benefit humans and non-humans alike by freeing geographical space and livelihood sources for all species Rees,We concede critics' point of needing to flesh out Nature Needs Half in a whole Earth context.

At the same time, we regard the alternative approach they offer as falling short of the transformations needed Cafaro et al. Instead of large-scale nature protection, critics counter that humanity must manage and allocate the natural world to serve all people in an equitable way. While we agree with the thrust for social justice, the non-human world seems curiously absent from moral consideration.Indeed, describing the natural world in terms of human natural resources and public goods tacitly supports the received assumptions that human beings are above and in control of nature, that Earth is subject to human ownership, and that distributive justice does not apply to non-humans Wienhues, ; Washington et al.

Critics of Nature Needs Half sidestep engagement with a paradigm shift gaining strength worldwide: the emerging recognition that justice is urgent not only for people but for the non-human world as well, especially in a time of extinctions, displacements, killings, mass mortality events, and starvations of non-humans Moore, ; UN General Assembly, ; Washington et al. We invite critics of large-scale conservation to recognize that humanity must move beyond the beliefs that humans rightfully control all geographical space and that only humans deserve moral consideration.

While these beliefs are far from universally held, they have become globally prevalent. When the need to supersede these beliefs is acknowledged another course of action emerges: one based on broadening existential and ethical concerns to include both human and non-human worlds.

Specifically, humanity can choose to downscale economically and demographically, and set free half the planet from our control. These conditions make possible protecting biodiversity and human well-being, goals that Nature Needs Half and its critics share.

The more research reveals about non-human lives, minds, and cultures, the more evident is it becoming that non-humans possess justice-relevant qualities of agency, sentience, intelligence, dignity, and capacity for life's joys and tribulations Gruen, ; Safina, , b ; Wohlleben,Advocating for inclusive justice—greater equality among people and respect for non-humans and their habitats—is corrective of an ethics that advocates for Earth as an open-access commons while implying that non-human species as less morally considerable Cafaro and Primack, ; Crist, ; Lynn, ; Treves et al.

The strategy we propose—conserving upward of half the planet while scaling back human economic activity and numbers—moves us toward realizing inclusive justice. Such protection is imperative for conserving and restoring populations of large predators. These animals are critical for maintaining healthy structure and function of ecosystems, and they are suffering from exploitation, declining prey, and habitat loss Wolf and Ripple,Extensively protecting habitat, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity will yield significant benefits for the non-human realm and humanity, including stemming the extinction crisis, promoting climate stabilization, and safeguarding ecosystem amenities such as pollination and freshwater conservation.

In alignment with Nature Needs Half critics, we advocate that large-scale nature protection will bar corporate access from much of the natural world, preventing that sector from profiting at the expense of biodiversity and marginalized people Vettese,To achieve high levels of conservation, while avoiding unnecessary human hardship, it is crucial to partner with Indigenous and local communities near protected areas Kealiikanakaoleohaililani and Giardina, ; Salomon et al.

Indigenous Peoples remain among the strongest defenders of Earth rights, and over one third of remaining natural lands are Indigenous lands Mander and Tauli-Corpuz, ; Strang, ; Dinerstein et al.

Conservation initiatives must respect Indigenous knowledge of the land, and collaborate with nearby communities to ensure they benefit from conservation actions. There is no one-size-fits-all model for protecting nature and supporting human residents. Communities need to be actively involved in conservation decision-making in ways that are context relevant, culturally sensitive, and attuned with Indigenous and local knowledge systems Sanderson and Redford, ; Wuerthner et al.

The Jane Goodall Institute offers a holistic model of human rights-based conservation through projects that pursue nature protection, ecological restoration, sustainable food production, employment and small business opportunities, as well as family planning and education Goodall,We support such a comprehensive approach. What specifically it looks like will vary according to ecological and social specifics. At a global level, economic activity and human numbers must be substantially downscaled Dietz and O'Neill, ; Bongaarts, ; Crist et al.

This will reduce humanity's collective pressures on Earth for food, land, freshwater, wild fish, bushmeat, energy, wood, minerals, and other materials. Economic degrowth and attaining a steady-state economy are critical components for downsizing the human factor, while moving toward a reduced human population will support lowering economic activity, including production, consumption, and trade.

It is worth emphasizing that such a course correction toward downscaling the human enterprise can be justified even on purely anthropocentric grounds, given the dangers to humanity of heading deeper into ecological overshoot Dasgupta, ; Tucker, ; Rees,Proposed shifts for a sustainable economic life include shortening the workweek, shrinking production of superfluous products, reducing global trade, boosting local economies, lowering the production of animal-derived foods, making commodities that are durable and recyclable, and creating a culture of repairing and reusing material things Victor, ; Dietz and O'Neill, ; Daly, ; Harwatt et al.

Chief consumer countries, and the global consumer class more broadly, must reduce consumption levels, especially of throwaway, luxury, and imported goods Lenzen et al. Rich nations also need to lead the transition away from fossil-fuel-powered economies, and support the developing world by renewable energy transfer, forgiving debt, and investing funding accrued from a wealth tax into viable living conditions, healthcare, family-planning services, and education for all.

Such economic transformations will no doubt be challenging, but the benefits of a living planet and greater human equality will far outweigh the costs. Alongside achieving economic degrowth and human equity—and reinforcing those goals—we can take action to end population growth and transition to a lower global population. Why numbers matter with respect to impact on Earth's systems is evident in the socioeconomic trajectory of the human population. The global middle class or consumer class has been growing by hundreds of millions of people per decade since the s.

In , the consumer class passed the milestone of half the human population, reaching over 3.Growth of the middle class is expected to continue barring some drastic setback Kharas,The main characteristics of the middle class standard of living are electrification, expendable income, material accumulation, and participation in the global economy.

The consumer lifestyle is saturated with commodities many of which are accessed on the global marketplace. Membership in the middle class involves owning an array of fashionable items from apparel to furnishings , as well as materials- and energy-intensive products such as refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, appliances, TVs, laptops, phones, and other electronic devices.

Middle-class food habits—eating more animal products, consuming processed, packaged, and imported foods, and regularly dining out—are costly in their demands for land, freshwater, and energy, and their output of pollution and food waste.

Middle-class living typically also includes owning an automobile and carbon-intensive travel. Even with the pursuit of actions to lower the consumption of the global middle class, as outlined above, the commodity-saturated lifestyle of that class still implies consumption levels well-beyond the basics.

The attainment of a middle-class standard of living follows in the wake of the abolition of poverty, which is clearly a desirable trend. In the aggregate, however, the materials- and energy-intensive features of middle-class consumption have massive ecological consequences.

The global convergence toward a consumer standard of living thus implies that ultimately the global population—total number of people—is a critical factor for planetary health in this century and beyond Crist,Of course, it is still imperative to lower the footprint of aggregate middle-class consumption via increasing dematerialization and efficiency in production systems, ending fossil-fuel use, moving increasingly toward plant-based diets, investing in public transportation, and eliminating or substantially reducing luxury and throwaway products.

Yet even with a best-case scenario of progress on all those fronts, a total of 9—10 billion people—with electricity, disposable income, commodity possessions, and connection to a global economy—will have a much higher ecological footprint than a total of 2—4 billion people. We argue that ending population growth and moving toward the lower end of that spectrum is the sensible choice for the health of the natural world and a high-quality human life.


Neanderthals may have cleared a European forest with fire or tools

Partnership for conservation. About WWF; Act. This is a limited, 4-year engagement. Baron Scicluna: Gorilla Monsoon vs. Our long-term vision is simple: to create a world where nature and people thrive.

It's mountain living at its most picturesque, and it could be yours. The enchanted and sometimes surreal landscapes of Earth View have.

Ruins and Rebirth

Photographer: Jasper Doest. It resulted in this photo of a Japanese macaque that seems to fly through the galaxy on a magic carpet. The initiative is called Vital Impacts and its mission is to support organizations working to protect endangered habitats for humans and wildlife and the storytellers who amplify these critical stories. Photographer: Reuben Wu. Field of Infinity.A continuation of his Lux Noctis and Aeroglyphs series, Reuben explored the landscapes of Bolivia on a week-long road trip, photographing in remote and extreme locations, in combination with his modified drone to illuminate the landscapes at night. Reuben Wu is a visual artist and music producer. He is also a co-founder of Ladytron and an official ambassador for Phase One. Photographer: Anand Varma.

Nature school near me

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Sauropod dinosaurs were restricted to warmer regions of Earth

Giant, long-necked sauropods, thought to include the largest land animals ever to have existed, preferred to live in warmer, more tropical regions on Earth, suggesting they may have had a different physiology from other dinosaurs, according to a new study led by researchers at UCL and the University of Vigo. The study, published in the journal Current Biology , investigated the enigma of why sauropod fossils are only found at lower latitudes, while fossils of other main dinosaur types seem ubiquitously present, with many located in the polar regions. The researchers analysed the fossil record across the Mesozoic era the time of the dinosaurs , lasting from around to 66 million years ago, looking at occurrences of fossils of the three main dinosaur types: sauropods, which include the Brontosaurus and the Diplodocus , theropods "lizard-hipped" , which include velociraptors and Tyrannosaurus rex , and ornithischians "bird-hipped" such as the Triceratops.Combining this fossil data with data about climate throughout the period, along with information about how continents have moved across the globe, the researchers concluded that sauropods were restricted to warmer, drier habitats than other dinosaurs. These habitats were likely to be open, semi-arid landscapes, similar to today's savannahs. They seem to have avoided any temperatures approaching freezing.

Protecting Half the Planet and Transforming Human Systems Are Complementary Goals

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and Lucas Moran of green wall manufacturer New Earth Solutions. Vancouver lies in hardiness Zone 7B; however, the Landscape.

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Due in part to their beauty and dazzling array of benefits, there is a growing demand for planting exterior green walls in cold climate areas of the northern US and across Canada.But freezing cold temperatures can take a toll on plants in these systems, so we asked three experts to share their winter survival secrets: Joep van Vilsteren of Sempergreen ; award-winning green roof and wall designer Randy Sharp; and Lucas Moran of green wall manufacturer New Earth Solutions. The living wall was installed in , and faces harsh conditions created by its orientation towards the bay. Due to the resilience of the plants and the living wall system, it is able to keep nearly all plants alive over the winter. Photo: Sempergreen. Living Architecture Monitor: Exterior green wall plants often suffer during the winter months, particularly when temperatures drop below zero?

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